Other elements included: a government commitment not to introduce any "one-sided" economic or taxation measures, a recognition by the government of the high safety standards of German nuclear plants and a guarantee not to erode those standards, the resumption of spent fuel transports for reprocessing in France and UK for five years or until contracts expire, and maintenance of two waste repository projects (at Konrad and Gorleben). Under BMU, the Reaktorsicherheitkommission or Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) conducts safety review of nuclear power reactors. Other proposals are for a high-level waste (HLW) repository in opalinus clay, which occurs in a number of places in Germany. Each holds 28 tonnes of vitrified HLW. In December 2017 BGE was merged with Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau von Endlagern für Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE), formerly a 75% subsidiary of spent fuel cask supplier GNS. In January 2013 the Hamburg Tax Court ruled more definitely that the German tax on nuclear fuel is simply "to siphon off the profits of the nuclear plant operators" and therefore unconstitutional. Large-scale investments in the grid are required. GNS developed and supplied the various types of CASTOR and CONSTOR casks for transporting and storing used fuel. After Germany announced that it will phase out nuclear power by 2022, photographer Bernhard Ludewig set out to capture the last remnants of a disappearing atomic age. This meant that the contributions to their respective decommissioning funds were truncated, rather than being allowed to accumulate for a full 40 or more years. Following the December 2016 legislation, in March 2017 the BMU and GNS established the Bundes Gesellschaft für Zwischenlagerung mbH (BGZ) joint venture to enable the government to take over intermediate storage and final disposal of radioactive waste. The utilities have been responsible for interim storage of spent fuel, and formed joint companies to build and operate offsite surface facilities at Ahaus and Gorleben. The German federal network agency and grid authority, Bundesnetzagentur (BNetzA), reported at the end of May 2011 on the implications of plans to close down nuclear generation. The site has held three unit’s since it was commissioned in 1966 – but just one reactor remains. The background to this in Germany is the long-standing influence of romanticism with love of forests and religious or mystical regard for nature which carried through into the 20th century as a complex reaction to industrial capitalism. In February 2017 the four TSOs reported to BNetzA on demand for redispatch measures to secure grid stability and concluded that 2.1 GWe of new fast-response open cycle gas turbine units in Bavaria, Baden-Wuerttemberg and the southern region of Hesse was needed by 2021 to counter wind growth and nuclear decline, with 2020 and 2025 identified as exceptionally critical for grid stability. The reactors affected were Biblis A, Neckarwestheim 1, Brunsbuettel, Biblis B, Isar 1, Unterweser, Phillipsburg 1. The management of 12 onsite interim storage facilities at German nuclear power plants will also be transferred to BGZ starting with HLW and used fuel in 2019, and 12 warehouses with ILW-LLW from operation and dismantling of nuclear power plants in 2020. The difference between projected feed-in tariffs and market revenues forms the essential part of the EEG surcharge applied to most consumers. Whereas the Social Democratic Party (SPD) had affirmed nuclear power in 1979, in August 1986 it passed a resolution to abandon nuclear power within ten years. About 35% of Germany’s gas is imported from Russia, and fracking is banned. VGB PowerTech e.V. A total of 166 large casks of glass canisters will be involved, and following the last shipment from La Hague in November 2011, 50 of these are already in storage at Gorleben. DBE plans for it eventually to accommodate 650,000 cubic metres of wastes from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants as well as from industry, medicine and research. From 1994 to 1998 reprocessing and direct disposal were equally acceptable to the federal government, but the policy of the coalition government from 1998 to 2009 was for direct geological disposal of spent fuel and no reprocessing after mid-2005 (although firm contracts for reprocessing, totalling US$ 7.3 billion, were in place with BNFL and Areva). This design was part of the technology bought by Eskom in 1996 and is a direct antecedent of the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) and the Chinese HTR-PM. Following is a timeline of the controversy over nuclear power in Germany. they supported the government phase-out policy, 38% supported continuing use of existing plants but no new build (47% in 2005), and 7% supported use with building more (22% in 2005). In any case, increased nuclear capacity in several of those neighbouring countries – and pre-eminently France – could easily, by 2020, supply 25,000 MWe through much-expanded interconnection. If Germany both continued with its nuclear phase-out policy and maintained carbon emission reductions, by about 2020 it would need to depend on some 25,000 MWe of base-load electricity capacity across its borders. Most of these reactors are now shut down and the centres have changed their roles. 6:17 AM EST, Sat November 30, 2019, This is how you demolish a nuclear power plant in Germany, Nigeria schoolboys freed Damon pkg intl hnk vpx_00001403.png, Nigerian government: Military has rescued all kidnapped schoolboys. However, particularly in the south, plant closures have exceeded new capacity coming online. Another 43 projects are identified in the BBPlG, based on the 2014 version of the Network Development Plan (NEP) presented annually by TSOs to the BNetzA. The Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft (BDEW) said that the economic viability of more than half of Germany’s planned power plants was called into question by government policies. Hence many power stations with higher marginal costs are displaced from the market by merit-order effect, and this has been seen most acutely with gas-fired plants, where average capacity factor had dropped to 23% in 2016. The coalition parties in the new government from late 2013 agreed to reduce the capacity targets from those set in 2010 and to revise the EEG law to reduce subsidies for renewable energy projects (see below). Nuclear Engineering International World Nuclear Industry Handbook 2004 In late 2012 Vattenfall Europe submitted an application to decommission and dismantle Brunsbüttel, which had been closed since 2007, and in August 2015 it applied similarly for Krümmel, which had not run since 2009. Anti-nuclear activism came to define the heart and soul of the environmental movement, expressing a foundational myth. It is also a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Month-ahead base-load prices were then over €40/MWh. In February 2017 RWE said Germany's nuclear energy phase-out fund had imposed a "substantial one-off burden" on its business last year. 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