The damage in Christchurch was far more considerable than the damage triggered in the 7.1 earthquake only 5 months previously. It caused extensive damage to property, and aftershocks also caused injury and loss of life as well as lasting social upheaval. Case study: Christchurch 2011 (HIC) Causes. New Zealand and the Christchurch Earthquake 2. And that comes down to ground acceleration. slightly increased compared to how much larger was the soil movement in Christchurch earthquake (Fig.2.5.). Why was the Great Kanto Earthquake so powerful? Which state is the MOST "earthquake-prone,"... What is an Earthquake? This contrasts with the shakemap for September, where intense shaking was felt across a much wider region.This shows that yesterday’s magnitude 6.3 quake released much less energy in total than September’s magnitude 7, but due to its … Simulations of how much the ground will move during a major Alpine Fault earthquake forecast a much higher intensity of ground movement in places such as Canterbury, according to … What is the history of earthquakes in Haiti? Scientists from many countries work with New Zealand researchers to study the Alpine Fault and the Canterbury earthquakes, and their information is shared around the world. Concerning the Greendale Fault that ruptured to produce the major component of the magnitude-7.1 September 2010 earthquake (there were at ... the Christchurch/ Selwyn ... ground … 7.1 Darfield Earthquake the Christchurch area experienced a series of earthquakes. Q.What happened underground to cause the Christchurch earthquake? Several buildings caught fire after the earthquake. 22 On February 2011, a fault rupture centred beneath the Port Hills generated an Mw 6.2 earthquake – the Christchurch Earthquake. Photos of damaged buildings and roads in and around Christchurch. In the city centre ground accelerations were three to four times greater than those produced by the September 2010 earthquake. Read our article on liquefaction to find out more. 185 people were killed in the February earth quake and thousands more were hurt. The earthquake was accompanied by a large surface rupture. Fault movement. Between the September 2010 earthquake and mid-July 2012, the Canterbury region experienced: The vertical acceleration of the ground during the 22 February 2011 earthquake was the highest ever recorded in New Zealand and one of the highest in the world. An earthquake near Christchurch in September 2010 started a chain of events still being felt over 2 years later. The earthquakes considered include the Mw 7.8 Dusky Sound earthquake (15 July, 2009), the Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake (4 September, 2010), and the Mw 6.2 Christchurch earthquake (22 February, 2011). A GNS scientist explains rockfalls and his research after the Christchurch earthquake. Shaking in the centre of Christchurch, which caused a lot of damage, was much stronger than in the 4 September 2010 earthquake, partly because it was much closer to the epicentre. This earthquake produced a visible rent across the landscape that allowed scientists to directly measure the movement of the longest fault segment, the Greendale Fault. On Tuesday 22nd of February 2011 there was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake at 12:51 pm. Early on 4 September 2010, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred on an unrecorded fault near Darfield, 40 km west of Christchurch and just 10 km below the surface. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Christchurch 22nd Feburary Earthquake. - Definition and Components, What Are Cyclones? An interview on New Zealand TV with Canterbury University geologist Mark Quigley, who provides an eyewitness account of the earthquake as well as some tectonic background. Seconds later, the Greendale Fault just to the south ruptured. Earthquakes often occur in areas that sit above faults, which are cracks in the earth typically between the boundaries of tectonic plates. Earthquake intensity map The peak ground acceleration (PGA) in central Christchurch exceeded 1.8 g (i.e. There was a great deal of ground movement in the Christchurch earthquake, resulting in the damage of many buildings and the loss of 183 lives.... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Photos of Christchurch Electrical Storm - Sept 2012 The earthquake struck the city of Christchurch in New Zealand on 22 February 2011. In Heathcote Valley it got up to 2.1 gravity. Transform boundaries are when two separate plates slide past each other in their movement. Damaged brick building on Victoria Street in Christchurch - Photo by Ian Chan A case study of an earthquake in a HIC.. What caused the Christchurch earthquake? Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. However, the earthquake on 22 February 2011 caused about 30 million tonnes of ice to break off the Tasman Glacier, 200 km to the west. This paper details the ground fissuring and coincident spring formation that was observed in the Hillsborough Valley, Christchurch. The 2010 shallow event took place ~45 km west of Christchurch at 4:35 AM local time. However, the violent magnitude 6.3 earthquake that devastated Christchurch on 22 February 2011 was caused by movement along a fault that does not appear to have broken the surface. These mass movements resulted in at least five fatalities, and many homes were damaged. Along 24 km of this fault, ground on either side shifted horizontally up to 5 m and vertically up to 1.3 m. Aftershocks were concentrated at the east end of the fault towards Christchurch as rock distorted by the original earthquake adjusted to new stresses. The movement was almost entirely strike-slip. A GNS scientist explains P and S waves, especially in relation to the Christchurch earthquakes. The earthquake … Peak Ground Accelera-tions (PGA) in the area of Southeast Christchurch were much higher than the design level in the period range of New Zealand road and highway bridges, with exceptional values of Along 24 km of this fault, ground on either side shifted horizontally up to 5 m and vertically up to 1.3 m. The full set of accelerograph data for the Christchurch earthquake, together with PDFs of the waveforms, are available from the GeoNet strong-motion FTP site. About 400 000 tonnes of silt pushed up through cracks in the ground and covered the surface, causing a huge clean-up problem. One result of this readjustment was a damaging aftershock (magnitude 6.3) on 22 February 2011, when a fault ruptured very close to Christchurch. Note how the maximum values are clustered in Christchurch, close to the rupture, and fall away fairly quickly outside it. This survey will open in a new tab and you can fill it out after your visit to the site. Update: 5/9/10 More useful links: The earthquake occurred on New Zealand’s South Island, 10km west of Christchurch, at 12.51pm on 22nd February 2011 and lasted just 10 seconds. MetService meteorologist Dan Corbett described the event as a "one-in-10-year event or may be even rarer". Shaking caused damaging landslides and rockfalls on steep slopes and cliffs, especially in Lyttelton, Sumner and Redcliffs. Some rocks shaken loose from high on the Port Hills bounced down hundreds of metres onto buildings below. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. Q. The critical issue with this earthquake was that the epicentre was at shallow depth (5km) under Christchurch, so many people were within 10km to 20km of the fault rupture. The 22nd February earthquake in Christchurch triggered extensive landslides and rockfalls in the Port Hills area to the east of the city. The most severe shaking in the February earthquake only lasted a few seconds but in places reached a PGA of 2.2 g. This was unusually high, especially for an earthquake of ‘only’ magnitude 6.3. That calculation is energy/hectare. Seconds later, the Greendale Fault just to the south ruptured. Services, What is an Earthquake? It was a relatively shallow earthquake – about 10 kilometres below the surface of the Canterbury Plains. 185 people were killed in the February earth quake and thousands more were injured. On Tuesday 22nd of February 2011 there was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake at 12:51pm. In July 2018, the Smart Christchurch programme at Christchurch City Council initiated a three-year trial of EQRNet with local company Canterbury Seismic Instruments (CSI). answer! Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal This fell into Tasman Lake and created waves up to 3.5 m high. Interference between waves amplified the ground acceleration in some places and reduced it in others. Scientists have thus had to rely on measurements using a variety of techniques and instruments to determine its location and the nature of its movement. In September 2010, Christchurch was shaken by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake, caused by movement along faults west of the city on the Canterbury Plains. - Definition & Types, Prentice Hall Earth Science: Online Textbook Help, Middle School Earth Science: Help and Review, Middle School Earth Science: Tutoring Solution, Glencoe Chemistry - Matter And Change: Online Textbook Help, Physical Science Curriculum Resource & Lesson Plans, ORELA General Science: Practice & Study Guide, ScienceFusion Matter and Energy: Online Textbook Help, CSET Science Subtest II Life Sciences (217): Practice & Study Guide, FTCE Physics 6-12 (032): Test Practice & Study Guide, ILTS Science - Chemistry (106): Test Practice and Study Guide, FTCE Earth & Space Science 6-12 (008): Test Practice & Study Guide, Praxis Earth & Space Sciences - Content Knowledge (5571): Practice & Study Guide, Biological and Biomedical In February most of the city was without power. Via BBC News, radar imagery detailing ground movement during the February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake.The map was produced from data captured by the Japanese Advanced Land Observing Satellite (Alos) before and after the quake. The Mw 6.3 February 22, 2011 Christchurch earthquake was centred 10 km south east of central Christchurch on the edge of the city at a depth of 5 km. EQRNet is a dense network of more than 150 ground-based accelerometers which allows the council to better manage its earthquake response using real-time information. In the CBD the Christchurch earthquake was 3 times more powerful and destructive than on land in Japan. Most households had power within two to three days, but some regions took much longer. - Types, Causes & Effects, What are Natural Disasters? There was a great deal of ground movement in the Christchurch earthquake, resulting in the damage of many buildings and the loss of 183 lives.... See full answer below. This meant the ground could no longer support the foundations of many buildings, causing them to subside. Underground infrastructure, such as water and sewage pipes, was also destroyed. The MetService said there were 140 lightning strikes from "cloud to ground" within 150 kilometres of Cathedral Square. In the February 2011 quake, the fault movement and structure of the bedrock produced exceptionally strong ground motion – up to 1.8 times the acceleration due to gravity in the eastern suburbs. The Christchurch earthquake occurred in Christchurch, New Zealand on February 22, 2011. Christchurch CDB it was 1.1 gravity. The earthquake left extensive damage mostly in the Central City and Eastern suburb areas of Christchurch. ES AT1 2017 Case Study: Christchurch Earthquake Part A: Analysis of Event Analysis of the tectonic movement or process involved The Christchurch earthquake in 2011 was a result of a transform boundary. In comparison, the magnitude 6.8 earthquake at Kobe, Japan, in January 1995 had a PGA of 0.8 g. The magnitude 9 earthquake near Tohoku, Japan, in March 2011 had a PGA of 2.7 g. The severe shaking of the September 2010 and February 2011 earthquakes caused some areas of underground, waterlogged silts to behave like liquid, in a process called liquefaction. Create your account. Figure 2.3. Curious Minds is a Government initiative jointly led by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, the Ministry of Education and the Office of the Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor. At 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday 22 February 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake caused severe damage in Christchurch and Lyttelton, killing 185 people and injuring several thousand. The unusually strong shaking might have been made worse by seismic lensing, with seismic waves being reflected off the hard basalt rocks of the Port Hills. We are also interested in determining whether time-varying stresses following the Dusky Sound earthquake could have altered the stress state in Canterbury in such a way … Q. At Fukushima, ground acceleration was .35 gravity. How long was the fault? It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake … This fault came to within a depth of 1 km but did not show at the surface. Which plate boundary and movement commonly create... What is a sudden ground movement caused by sudden... An earthquake was measured to have a magnitude of... What was the impact of the 1964 Earthquake in... Are there any earthquakes on the Indo-Australian... A magnitude 7 earthquake suggests higher ground... Can an earthquake trigger a disease outbreak? During the strong shaking, the ground near the epicentre moved at up to 1.25 times the acceleration due to gravity. How much ground movement has there been? Its magnitude was 6.3, and it was felt in many areas of the island. The earthquake produced the strongest earthquake ground-shaking ever recorded in New Zealand, with the ground near the epicentre moving up 1.25 times the acceleration due to gravity. PGS reached about 30% g and intensities were in the order of VIII at the epicentre, in Christchurch only VI-VII. Thus, the main damage of the bridge is attributed to the first earthquake. Measuring 6.3 on the Richter Scale and, at 4.99 km deep, the earthquake was very shallow. This is due to the deck restraining and increase of the pile bending resistance. The Christchurch earthquake was a 6.3, and the real hard volcanic rock from the old volcano accelerated the movement, so we had more than two times the force of gravity shaking the city. Golf ball hail rained down on the people of Christchurch. In the Christchurch CBD, the ground accelerations produced by the September magnitude 6.3 earthquake were 3-4 times greater than during the 7.1 earthquake; in … Today's earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand is different. Downtown, there’s lots of buildings that have yet to come down. New zealand and the christchurch earthquake 2 1. - Definition & Explanation, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Effects in Christchurch. The fault plane extends a few kilometres offshore, but not much fault movement occurred beneath the ocean. The damage in Christchurch was far more substantial than the damage caused in the 7.1 earthquake only 5 months before. More powerful and destructive than on land in Japan the ground near the epicentre moved at up 1.25. As they ’ re designed for happened underground to cause the Christchurch earthquake and destructive than on in! 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